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Additional info for A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia

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It is the heritage language of two of the eleven bands that constitute the Pit River Tribe, the Atsugewi of Hat Creek and the Aporige (Apwaruge) of Dixie Valley. Atsugewi has been well documented in recent decades, principally by Talmy, who published a major study of its semantic structure. There have been no known speakers since 1988, and no revitalization effort is under way. Attikamek (Teˆte de Boule) [19] is the Western Cree dialect spoken on the Manouane/ Manuan, Obedjiwan/Obidjewan, and Weymontachingue/Wemontachie Reserves, north of Trois-Rivie`res in south-central Quebec.

The language became extinct in the eighteenth century. Mahican [49] was an emergent language in the Delaware dialect complex of Algonquian. It was spoken in the upper Hudson River from Lake Champlain south to Dutchess County, and in the eighteenth century was the dominant language at the mission village of Stockbridge in western Massachusetts. There is a fair amount of documentation, principally by Moravian missionaries. The Mahicans were removed to the west in the nineteenth century, and the language was last spoken in Wisconsin in the 1930s.

The only major internal division occurs at Atka Island, separating Eastern from Western dialects. The traditional ethnonym is Unangan (‘Aleuts’ was introduced by Russian explorers, who used the same term for the Pacific Yupik Eskimos). Of a current population of about 2,200 Aleuts, about 150–60 speak the language. In the early nineteenth century Russian Orthodox missionaries promoted native literacy and helped foster a remarkably bilingual society. The most notable of these missionaries, Ivan Veniaminov, developed a writing system and translated religious material into Aleut.

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A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia by by Rika Hayami-Allen.

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