A Korean Grammar - download pdf or read online

By Gustaf John Ramstedt, Juha Janhunen

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The plural [-k], the 1sg possessive [-m], the superessive [-n]). There are three types of examples when a vowel alternates with zero and/or occurs at a stem/affix boundary, yet it is not a linking vowel. These are illustrated in (3): (3) Non-linking vowels a. Stem-final vowels alternating with zero Suffixless Suffixed Glosses [be˜nc] [be˜nul] ‘paralyzed – become paralyzed’ [sø˜kε] [sø˜kyl] ‘blond – become blond’ b. Vowel/zero alternations that are not at stem-suffix boundaries Suffixless Suffixed Glosses [bokor] [bokruŋk] ‘bush – our bush’ [tykør] [tykryŋk] ‘mirror – our mirror’ c.

The (consonantal) verbs, which were originally inflected according to the variants in the two middle columns, created a separate class, which then could make its effect felt (cf. the verbs belonging to the kino- type mentioned above) and insert loan verbs, while – under the influence of the original derivation – the derived forms survived or reappeared. It also seems to be the case that the group of -o- stem verbs – which were originally derivational, too – became powerful enough to have an analogical effect and attract this verb, which in turn began to inflect according to the pattern retaining the marker in the first persons.

1 Transitive derivational markers There are two main transitive derivational markers in Romani: the earlier, deverbal -av and the denominal -ar, which appeared later. The most obvious examples of the former (Matras 2002: 122) are the following: (2) darav- ‘frighten’ < dara- ‘be afraid, fear’ našav- ‘drive away, expel’ < naš- ‘escape, run away’ However, there are other, less unambiguous examples. According to Matras (2002), the verb xoxav- ‘deceive, tell a lie’ derives from a non-verbal root that has been lost, while Hutterer & Mészáros (1967) claim that it has its origins in the existing verb xox- ‘cheat, lie’, which, however, does not appear in Vekerdi (2000).

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A Korean Grammar by Gustaf John Ramstedt, Juha Janhunen

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