By Gerd Hardack, Dieter Karras, Ben Fine
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Proposing a brand new political and historic concept of the combined financial system, this booklet is a powerful argument for a not easy social excellent - democratic communitarianism. Individualistic notions of liberty, equality and prosperity are too vital to trendy existence and so they must be balanced via values of `community' and co-operation.
Those essays are taken from a convention at the options of Michail Kalecki, held at Perugia, Italy in April 1986. the aim of the convention was once to judge the relevance of his idea relating to present financial debate and to check its impact on modern suggestion. the gathering of papers replicate a large spectrum of critiques and diversity one of the so much correct features of Kalecki's paintings; from the connection with different authors to the microfoundations of macroeconomics and to the idea of source of revenue distribution; from the financial thought to his composite method of the industrial coverage; from the idea of commercial cycles to the long-run dynamics of the capitalist economies to the issues curious about the socialist making plans.
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1 The key factors behind this transition include declining fertility rates and rising life expectancy. e. 1). Other OECD countries, especially in Europe, have followed a similar pattern. In contrast, fertility rates have been rising gradually in the US since 1976. The low total fertility rate in Japan is projected to continue over the coming decades. The decline in fertility was accompanied by a sharp decline in mortality rates. 6 years for women. These are among the highest in the world. By 2050, it is projected that life expectancy at birth will 1.
Thus, the rise in Japan’s older population will be greater than the fall in its younger population. In fact, this pattern is projected to continue through to 2050 by which time there will be slightly more than one person of “non-working” age for every person of “working-age” in Japan compared with a ratio of around two to three currently. 46 AGEING AND EMPLOYMENT POLICIES: JAPAN– ISBN-92-64-02109-4 © OECD 2004 2. Potential economic and social impacts The demographic transition to an aged society will have serious economic and social repercussions.
By 2050, it is projected that life expectancy at birth will 1. In fact, long-range projections by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Population Projection for Japan 2002) suggest that Japan’s population may continue to decline through to 2100, by which time its population would be at the same level as it was in 1930. 2. Among OECD countries, Japan has one of the lowest shares of foreigners in the total population and labour force. 2%, while that of Switzerland was 19% (OECD, 2001a, Chapter 5).
A Short History of Socialist Economic Thought by Gerd Hardack, Dieter Karras, Ben Fine