By George F. Luger, William A Stubblefield
AI Algorithms, facts buildings, and Idioms in Prolog, Lisp, and Java
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Additional resources for AI algorithms, data structures, and idioms in Prolog, Lisp, and Java
Robinson designed a proof procedure called resolution, which is the primary method for computing with Prolog. For a more complete description of resolution refutation systems and of Prolog as Horn clause refutation, see Luger (2009, Chapter 14). Because of these features, Prolog has proved to be a useful vehicle for investigating such experimental programming issues as automatic code generation, program verification, and design of high-level specification languages. As noted above, Prolog and other logic-based languages support a declarative programming style—that is, constructing a program in terms of high-level descriptions of a problem’s constraints—rather than a procedural programming style—writing programs as a sequence of instructions for performing an algorithm.
Hasprop indicates that Object has Property with Value. Object and Value are nodes in the network, and Property is the name of the link that joins them. 1 is: isa(canary, bird). hasprop(tweety, color, white) isa(robin, bird). hasprop(robin, color, red). isa(ostrich, bird). hasprop(canary, color, yellow). isa(penguin, bird). hasprop(penguin, color, brown). isa(bird, animal). hasprop(bird, travel, fly). isa(fish, animal). hasprop(ostrich, travel, walk). isa(opus, penguin). hasprop(fish, travel, swim).
Not that this pattern will match no matter what X is bound to: an atom, a list, whatever! If the two are not identical, then it is natural to check whether X is an element of the rest (T) of the list. This is defined by: member(X, [Y | T]) :- member(X, T). The two lines of Prolog for checking list membership are then: member(X, [X | T]). member(X, [Y | T]) :- member(X, T). This example illustrates the importance of Prolog’s built-in order of search with the terminating condition placed before the recursive call, that is, to be tested before the algorithm recurs.
AI algorithms, data structures, and idioms in Prolog, Lisp, and Java by George F. Luger, William A Stubblefield