Aid and Political Conditionality by Olav Stokke PDF

By Olav Stokke

ISBN-10: 0714646407

ISBN-13: 9780714646404

International relief has more and more turn into topic to political conditionality. within the Nineteen Eighties a few associations made relief based upon the recipient nations' fiscal coverage reforms. industry liberalisation was once the first software and goal. within the Nineteen Nineties such conditionality was once introduced one step extra; reduction used to be now associated with political reforms, affecting recipient international locations' governing platforms, requiring democracy, human rights and 'good governance'. This quantity seems at those advancements and considers the conditionality rules of numerous eu reduction donors. Such regulations also are thought of from recipient views, either from the 3rd global and Russia, and the problem can be thought of from a ancient point of view.

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The emphasis is on accountability, transparency and predictability on the part of politicians and civil servants and on the rule of lavv. In the World Bank brand, these aspects are conceived of vvithin this more narrovv public administra­ tion perspective, leaving out aspects that more explicitly belong to the political arena, such as political participation, an open debate and political legitimacy. 23 The concept might vvell be broadened to 22. Emphasis is given to aspects of govemment vvhich affect economic development, and therefore fall vvithin its mandate, namely the follovving four areas: ‘public sector management, accountability, the legal framevvork for development, and information and transparency’ [World Bank, 1992:2].

Such conflicts may be identified at the level of theory: although neo-liberal thinking received a boost in the 1980s, particularly in the Bretton Woods institutions and as far as some major Western govemments were concerned, the blessings of the market and a reduced and differ­ ent role of the State are in no way uncontested. 14 As argued by Leftwich [1994:373], sustained economic 14. For a comprehensive analysis, see Martin Doornbos [1990]. He observes that the expectations which, in the 1960s, were held, vvithin both liberal and Marxist paradigms, to the developmental role of the State proved ill-founded, both vis-ä-vis the 20 C O R E I S S U E S A N D S T A T E OF TH E A R T growth in late developers is the product of patterns of politics which tend to concentrate in the State both the political vvill and the bureaucratic competence to establish a developmental momentum in a competitively hostile international environment.

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, it became broadly recognised in the aid community that national policy, particularly the economic framework conditions, mattered. Crises tend to foster stocktaking and even invention and reform. The deep-rooted, structural economic crisis in large parts of the Third World at the end of the 1970s generated the first generation of condi­ tionality. The main objective was crisis management: to put the economies of Third World countries concerned in order, that is, to restore their balance.

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